Recent volcanic activity is evidenced by hot springs and gas outlets.

Here the air temperature is the same and is in January from -8 ° .. 9 ° С, in July – + 15 ° … 16 ° С, and the amount of precipitation is different: in the foothills – 400-500 mm , on the Main ridge – 900-1200 mm.

The climate of the Southern coast of Crimea is subtropical Mediterranean, with positive temperatures all year round. The annual rainfall is 350-550 mm, the maximum of which falls on the winter months. Summer here is hot and dry.

The rivers of the Crimean mountains are short, their valleys are canyon-like in places. Many rivers of the mountainous part of the Crimea for a long time dry up or go into groundwater. The largest rivers are the Salgir, the Alma, the Belbek, and the Chorna. All the rivers of the Crimea originate in the mountains. The rivers of the southern slopes are short, their systems are poorly developed, the catchment area is small. They are stormy, porous, with frequent waterfalls. The rivers of the northern slopes are relatively longer, have a significant number of tributaries. The areas of their catchments are larger and the currents are calmer.

The soil cover of the Crimean mountains is very colorful and changes with height. Sod-carbonate mountain-forest-steppe soils are widespread in the foothills, and brown soils on the southern coast of Crimea. On the northern slopes of the Main Range, which is occupied by forest vegetation, brown forest soils are widespread, and on the tops of the plateaus (yaylas) mountain meadow soils are developed. The southern slope of the Main Crimean ridge does not have a continuous soil cover – it is interrupted here by rocks, scree.

Vertical clarity is manifested in the distribution of vegetation of the Crimean mountains. The foothills are a strip of Crimean forest-steppe, which is an alternation of steppe with forest areas. Here grows a fluffy oak, rocky and common, field maple, birch, from shrubs – turf, hornbeam, hawthorn, dog rose, from grasses – feather grass, fescue.

On the northern slope of the Main Range up to 700 m above sea level, rock oak, maple, ash, linden, and hornbeam predominate. Above, to a height of 1300 m – beech forests with admixtures of hornbeam, birch, linden. Near the upper limit there are small areas of pine forests. On the mountain plateaus – yaylah, only small areas of beech and pine forests have survived. The main area of ​​Yayl is occupied by mountain meadows and meadow steppes. Alpine violet, St. John’s wort, immortelle, sedge, fescue are widespread here.

The southern coast of Crimea is characterized by shrubby thickets, which consists of woodruff, shrubby forms of downy oak and eastern hornbeam. The modern landscape is formed by cypresses, cedars, laurels, magnolias. Due to favorable soil and climatic conditions it is possible to grow subtropical crops; almonds, figs, persimmons, pomegranates. The fauna of the Crimean mountains is diverse. In the forests live deer, roe deer, mouflon (a wild relative of a domestic sheep from the island of Corsica), stone marten, badger, fox, hare, squirrel. Of the birds: black vulture, owl, jay, tits, urticaria, nightingale, seagulls, swans, herons.

Extremely beautiful nature, warm climate and sea make the southern coast of Crimea one of the best resort areas of Ukraine.

The most famous nature reserves of the Mountain Crimea are reserves: Crimean., Yalta, Karadag, ” Cape Martyan" as well as the Nikitsky Botanical Garden.


1. Andreev AG, Guk VI New data on the morphology and neotectonics of the Podolsk reef zone // Materials on geology, hydrogeology and geochemistry of Ukraine, Kazakhstan, Altai and Transbaikalia. – 1970. – No. 6. – P. 27-35.

2. Vyrzhikovsky RR A new ridge of Sarmatian reef limestones in Podolia (geological research in the valley of the Kamenka River in 1926) // Visnyk Ukr. geol. Committee, 1928. – Issue. II.

3. Gerenchuk KI Podolsk toltra (geomorphological essay) // Izv. VGO, 1949. – T. 81. – Vyp. 5. – P. 530-536.

4. Gerenchuk KI Geomorphology of Podolia // Scientist. zap. Chernivtsi University, ser. geol. -geogr. Science. – 1950. – T. 8. – Vyp. 2. – P. 89-111.

5. Hofstein ID Neotectonics of Western Volyn-Podolia. – K.: Nauk, Dumka, 1979. –156 p.


Geography: Sahara Desert. Abstract

In the Sahara, due to the processes of intense physical weathering, significant masses of debris have accumulated. Almost 20% of the Sahara is occupied by erg sandy deserts, especially in the Libyan desert and the northwest.

This physical-geographical country is the world’s largest desert with an area of ​​8.7 million km2 (more than 1/3 of the mainland). It is located entirely within the Sahara Plate – the northern part of the African platform.

The surface of the slab foundation is covered with layers of limestone, sandstone, marl and clay rocks of different ages. In some places, ancient crystalline rocks of the foundation or intrusions appear on the surface, forming high plateaus (Ahaggar, Tibesti, etc.) with a significant spread of volcanic rocks, lava plateaus, and extinct volcanoes. Recent volcanic activity is evidenced by hot springs and gas outlets. Here the terrain is typically mountainous, very articulated, with steep slopes.

In the western Sahara, low plateaus and basins with thick layers of sedimentary rocks dominate. In areas of the platform with a monoclinic structure, quest ridges are developed, which are separated by wide valleys and narrow gorges.

The eastern part is mainly the Libyan, Arabian and Nubian deserts. Here is one of the deepest dry basins of the globe – Kattara (-133 m), an area of ​​19.5 thousand km2.

Near the Red Sea rise table plateaus with deep gorges of fluvial origin, which indicate a significant erosional dismemberment in the past humid epochs. Everywhere there are dry riverbeds – wadi, as well as oases.

Sahara desert

In the Sahara, due to the processes of intense physical weathering, significant masses of debris have accumulated. Almost 20% of the Sahara is occupied by erg sandy deserts, especially in the Libyan desert and the northwest. Stony gravel (hamadas) and pebble (peri, seriri) deserts are also common. The latter occupy the bottoms of basins (sebhs). Protective limestone-gypsum crusts are also common, which protect the vast uplifts of the Sahara from peneplenization and denudation.

The main features of the Sahara are determined by the dominance of very dry continental tropical air. Causes of dryness – descending air flows over the Sahara, as a consequence, temperature inversions, which is the cause of a significant height of the condensation level (up to 5 km). Therefore, clouds over the Sahara are very rare. The absence of clouds, in turn, causes very significant insolation, which reaches almost 100%.

It is the hottest desert on the planet, with significant daily and annual temperature amplitudes. In summer, temperatures reach +50 … + 58 °, and on the surface up to + 80 °. Sandstorms often occur – a very dangerous phenomenon in high temperatures. Very often at this time of year as a result of uneven heating of air layers there are mirages. In winter the air is cooler. In the center and northwest, the average monthly air temperature is +10 … + 12 °, and on the coast up to + 15 °, because the influence of the ocean is felt. In general, in winter the desert warms up even to + 25 ° during the day, but at night as a result of significant cooling under a cloudless sky it decreases to zero, and on the hills even to -20 °.

Most of the Sahara receives less than 50 mm of rainfall per year, and inland rains sometimes do not fall for several years in a row. The Ahaggar Highlands and the Libyan Desert are particularly arid. In the interior, precipitation usually falls in the form of showers and much of the water evaporates in the atmosphere.

On the Atlantic coast, precipitation is slightly higher (up to 150 mm) due to the humid Atlantic air that forms over the Canary Cold Current. The contrast of temperatures of oceanic and continental air masses is the reason for somewhat more active cyclonic activity in coastal areas and frequent fogs and dew. In the north and on the highest peaks of the highlands, snow sometimes falls, which lasts for a few days.

In the southern part of the Sahara (and sometimes even in the center) precipitation falls as a result of the penetration of equatorial monsoons north of their average long-term limit (summer). By the way, the arid climate has existed in the Sahara for about 10 thousand years. When it was cold in Europe, the climate of the Sahara was quite humid, as evidenced by both geographical features (dry riverbeds and lakes, hydromorphic weathering crusts, etc.) and rock paintings that have survived in some areas and were discovered by a French researcher. Henri Lot on the Tassilin-Ager plateau.

There are almost no surface waters in the Sahara: dry riverbeds have been preserved from the pluvial epochs. Most of them begin in the highlands and end in the hollows. Only occasionally, after heavy rain, do they fill with water for a maximum of a few days. The largest river in the Sahara is the transit Nile, which feeds outside the desert. Sometimes there are relict lakes, which have survived from long past humid epochs and feed on groundwater, which is especially abundant in sandy deserts.

Drainless salt lakes are also common. The Sahara is rich in significant reserves of groundwater, including artesian. Oases, which are often of anthropogenic origin, are widespread in the areas where they come to the surface along the water. The most common plant in them is the date palm, as well as figs, red peppers and more.

The soil and vegetation cover of the Sahara is very poor, often completely absent. Despite the fact that the soils are poorly differentiated into horizons, low-power, they contain many nutrients and therefore quite fertile when irrigated. Xerophytes and ephemerals dominate from plants. In total, the flora of the Sahara has about 1,200 species of higher plants.

The latter have a short growing season (up to one month). Hamadas have the poorest vegetation. Leafless shrubs, semi-shrubs and cereals are common in sandy deserts – Saharan drone, ephedra, dogwood, acacia seyal – a low shrub with spikes of silver color, sometimes {Jericho rose. Quinoa grows on the more humid Atlantic coast, as well as low-growing milkweed. Indigenous outcrops are covered with lichens.

The highlands are also better moistened, so there is a fairly dense vegetation. In the lower belt there are common palms of dumas, acacias, and in the middle – oak, juniper, oleander, myrtle, cypress, olive tree and others. Areas of xerophytic grasses are found on the tops.

In the extreme south of the Sahara there are areas of shrubs and hard grasses, and on the Mediterranean coast – wild pistachios, oleanders and more.